My dream for Lexi

My dream is this: you and I are running free, around oak trees, through shallow rivers and over wobbly styles. We’re muddy and panting and sweaty. You shake your wet fur and then pounce on a shrew, while I lie on the grass watching threads of cloud float away.

No drone of cars can be heard in this dream. No backfiring motorbikes, or any of the other things that make you tremble. There are no sudden people looming around corners. No one to demand ‘Can I stroke your dog?’ And then, ‘What’s wrong with her?” as you flinch below their hand, frantically biting through your leash. The bad guys surround us — in houses, cars, on bicycles. Your head moves everywhere at once. An exhaust bangs, a child laughs, a shadow falls. You flatten yourself against the ground, claws scraping, heart jumping, eyes rolling.

You would die for me in a heart beat and I want to tell you that you don’t ever need to. That it is enough that you exist. That all we want from you is to run by your side and throw sticks in the river. That you make our lives better by just being. You owe us nothing.

A friend once said to me, ‘It’s all going on behind the eyes, with some dogs.’

In my dream I can understand what’s going on behind your eyes. You can understand my words, and I yours. In my dream where the Swallows zig zag across the river, and we run and jump and laugh and bark.

Training Milo

Milo is an adorable little dog, that I’ve been teaching to ‘wait,’ and ‘come back.’

Using rewards, I’ve been asking him to ‘wait,’ for longer and longer periods (counting up the time in seconds) before asking him to ‘come here.’ He’s learned it very fast. However, the next, harder step is to replicate this in other places. Next, we’re going to a nearby field. Once he’s got the hang of the commands, the real test will be in the park where other dogs are running around and then by the roads. I’ll be aiming to encourage him to ‘wait,’ no matter what distractions are around him. So, far so good.

In our own likeness

I used to watch my dog, Blue, sit motionless. He’d plant his front paws firmly out along the grass in front of him, belly on the ground and stare ahead for twenty minutes at a time.
I assumed he was bored, or just thinking. I never really analysed his behaviour. He was being quiet, so like many dog owners, I tended not to notice him unless he was whining, or barking or trying to get my attention.

In Alexandra Horowitz’s ‘Inside of a Dog,’ she suggests that when a dog is quiet but awake, watch their nose. Far from ‘doing nothing,’ this is like dog television. Smellevision, perhaps. Their nose is probably very active.

Horowitz’s book is a must have for anyone who wants to understand what life might be like for dogs. The more I’ve delved into dog training, the more I’ve realised that so much of what we assume dogs are doing or thinking is in fact, nothing more than our own behaviour projected back onto dogs. We see this when scrolling dog pictures on our phones. Dog shaming is a classic example – fun pictures of dogs looking ‘guilty,’ (we assume) or looking disinterested (or nervously avoiding eye contact).  More often than not, the body language means something else entirely, but we can’t help attributing recognisable human facial expressions onto another species.

Ian Dunbar, explains how human’s projecting their own feeling and assumptions onto dogs, skewed how researchers interpreted dog behaviour. He credits the anthropologist, Thelma Rawell, with noticing that the infamous ‘dominance theory’ stuck around because she says, the researchers were all men and they were too important and busy to spend enough time properly observing animals. They saw themselves in dogs and wolves. Or as Ian Dunbar explains: ‘You go into a busy pub, at 9 pm – what do you notice? You notice the adolescents. The loud young people. They’re fighting and shouting and jostling. You don’t notice the quiet man in the corner, sat with his wife, chatting.’ This is what so many researchers saw in the animal groups they observed. They noticed the growling, chest beating, playful, boisterous young ones.

Alexandra Horowitz noticed a similar aspect to the research on dog’s use of urination. The early-twentieth-century ethologist, Konrad Lorenz, assumed that a ‘dog’s urine was his colonial flag, planted where one claims ownership.’ This hypothesis, while very much reflecting a certain historical attitude, failed to sustain as new analysis of dog behaviour materialised. Research on free-range dogs in India, for example, shows urination to be a much more social affair; more of a communication method for courting, and showing off. Perhaps we should think of it as the dog version of Tinder and Facebook! Or as Horowitz says ‘ a local bulletin board’ for dogs to signpost what they’re up to.

As research became more scientific – properly observed and recorded behaviour of groups of animals – data showed much more variable behaviours in dogs. And we can also now observe dogs in the wild. Animals whose ancestors went through the domestication process and then rewilded, so to speak. They are now observable as a distinct ‘wild’ species to get better data on their behaviour – village dogs in semi-rural India, or street dogs in Istanbul. Because of this, we can learn so much more about our own dogs, their needs and their behaviour.

So now when you see your dog doing a thing – sniffing, urinating, looking guilty –  a closer look might tell something less obvious. We might discover a deeper, more unique way of ‘dog being.’ Now I think that when my dog Blue, was sat doing nothing, he was actually experiencing the most interesting and active part of in his day. Or maybe like in the poem by GK Chesterton, he was, detecting: ‘The brilliant smell of water/the brave smell of stone/the smell of dew and thunder/the old bones buried under.’ 





The embarrassment factor

You might know this scenario: Aunt Sylvie is visiting and just as she raises her earl grey tea to her lips, Bluey wraps his little paws around her bare leg and starts to rub himself up and down. Aunt Sylvie – depending on what kind of person she is – either laughs or looks horrified. Everyone else in the room reacts. Mum bats Bluey away, pulling his collar. The youngest child points and asks ‘why is Bluey jumping on Auntie’s leg?’ No-one wants to have to explain the sexual urges of mammals* to the child right now, so he cries. The rest of the room is either laughing, tutting, or making excuses. No-one has time to wonder what Bluey has learned from this. Probably, he learned that excitedly rubbing against someone’s leg gets all kinds of confused responses from humans and no doubt he’ll definitely do it again, because he got lots of attention, even if it made no sense to him.**

What else can you do in this kind of situation? It’s difficult. Dog training tells you that it’s probably best to ignore a behaviour that you don’t want to continue, but social etiquette says you must definitely let Aunt Sylvie know that you don’t approve of Bluey humping her leg!

This kind of embarrassment factor can really hinder training programs with dogs.

There are many occasions where I’ve had to ignore the embarrassment factor. I’m a person who is naturally very aware of how people are reacting around me and will go bright red if embarrassed, so I’ve had to work hard to block out the judgements of strangers as I’m training dogs.

Taking a dog out into the streets to learn new ways of doing things means coming into contact with the public, many of whom will have all kinds of theories and judgements about what you are doing.

Here’s a couple of scenarios I remember well.

Waiting at the pelican crossing with a dog until he sat and waited properly.  The cars were queuing up at the red light, the drivers impatiently wondering why we aren’t crossing the road. I was teaching Milo to sit and wait. It was hugely important that I got him to wait on the first command, so it took a lot of different attempts for him to get that he would only receive a treat once he’d sat and waited. He stayed standing, tail wagging, whilst we started again. I had to remember that whilst it was confusing for the drivers, who might have been irritated that pressed the button, it was more important that I didn’t break the flow of Milo’s training at that moment. It was no real harm to them, but it would have slowed his training down, quite considerably.

Another time, I was walking very slowly along the high street with a dog that was learning ‘loose leash.’ We were going at a snail’s pace. Maybe slower! It was a painstaking process of waiting for the dog to naturally be ‘loose’ on the lead, and then rewarding with a click and treat, every time he managed it. Of course, for people going past with prams and motability scooters, I must have looked very strange. And because we were moving very slowly, people would want to chat, give advice or just ‘tut’ loudly as they made it clear we were in their way.

One of the most difficult situations, of course, is if you are training a very ‘reactive’ dog. Their behaviour, to the untrained eye, can seem wild and dangerous, and this can lead to training sessions becoming difficult because you (understandably) worry what people will think. Lexi, a very reactive and scared ex farm dog that we looked after, would twist and turn on the lead, bite the lead, lunge at people and bikes and cars and drag herself along the ground. People would stare, or get nervous, or try and help. Sometimes in a tricky situation like that, a fluorescent bandana helps. You can buy ones with wording on like: rescue dog, please don’t touch, or dog in training. Even if people can’t get close enough to read the words, they people often associate the fluorescent material with training and realise that there’s a special situation happening. It saves you having to explain anything while you’re trying to concentrate.***

The embarrassment may not go away. We live in a world where humans and dogs co-exist. People have strong feelings about dogs, positive and negative, and you’re likely to encounter lots of judgement and opinions. But, the more you feel clear and confident about what you’re doing and why you are doing it, the less you will worry about what other people think. There’s no need to make eye contact with people to appease them. If, like me, you prefer to be friendly and open with people, then a brief smile and nod and back to your training should be enough to let most people know you are a) busy and b) dealing with the situation.

And, by the way, next time Aunt Sylvie comes to visit, clearly tell her that Bluey is in training and when he does ‘unwanted’ behaviours ‘we’re ignoring him, unless he does something dangerous.’ Make a joke of it, like: ‘He may hump someone’s leg – can you try and ignore him and give no eye contact while I distract him. I promise to make it up to with an extra big glass of wine!.’


*I left this in for comedy value. There may be other reasons for leg humping that isn’t sexually motivated: excitement, fear, mild aggression. It’s always best to evaluate the causes of your dog’s behaviour in the context of their unique personality and environment.

**This is almost a true story. Doris, a wonderful dog of ours, would look like she was asleep. Then suddenly, as a visitor sat down on the sofa and stretched out their legs, she’d leap up and wrap herself around their nearest leg and hump it as fast as she could. I spent many years in constant ‘hovering mode’ around posh visitors, ready to distract her if I saw her eyeing up their legs.

***Next week we’ll continue this theme, with a blog on how to deal with people (often very well meaning people) who try to help or interfere while you are training your dog.

Why train dogs?


There are 8.5 million pet dogs in the UK. We love dogs and it would seem they love us back.* Dogs and humans have a long, complex history together. Recent behavioural analysis showed that dogs like to be in the company of humans, as much, if not more than their fellow dogs.  Dogs look after us, as assistance dogs, as mountain rescuers, as guard dogs and therapy dogs. We feed them. We create whole industries around showing them off, make play areas for them, groom and pamper them.

And yet, despite all this love and tangled evolution, hundreds of thousands of dogs live in a state of unnecessary stress and anxiety because well meaning owners misinterpret their dogs behaviour. Unhelpful TV programmes tell people their dogs are trying to ‘dominate’ them and insert themselves into human families as the ‘alpha’ pack leader. A misleading study of captive wolves in the 1960s led to one of the biggest disservices to dog and human relationships imaginable: The dominance theory.  A new breed of dog trainers and behaviourists have worked hard to mitigate the damage that this misinterpretation caused, but old habits die hard, and it seems humans don’t learn new tricks easily. We hear the language that this harmful dominance theory has left, everywhere. “Teach your dog who’s in charge.” “You need to be the alpha of the pack.” “Don’t let your dog dominate you,” and so on. Unhelpful training methods that may appear to work in the short term, but can cause long term fear and aggression in the dog are a product of the persistent dominance theory. They include: rolling over, pinning down, ear pinching, shouting, growling and hitting. 

There is a better way to train your dog. A fantastic dog behaviourist I know put in very simply: “Your dog is usually just trying to understand what you want from him.” And “If your dog appears to be ‘misbehaving’ it’s probably because she doesn’t understand you.”

We can help dogs by making it easier for them to know what we want from them and to help them understand us. The first stage of this is to do a lot of observation of your dog. Their breed, their personality and their environment will influence their behaviour. The second is to introduce her to basic reward based training techniques. These techniques will bring you and your dog to a closer understanding of each other and help keep your dog safe and as far as possible, stress free. This site will explore these techniques through videos and articles, with the aim of making life rewarding and fun for dogs and humans who co-exist.

It’s truly remarkable how well dogs ‘read’ our behaviour. Amazing advances in canine behaviour studies, show how expert dogs are at reading our expressions, judging our moods and guessing what we need and want. Gentle, reward based training can add to this, in a positive way, building the bond between owners and dogs. 

Thank you for visiting Dog Positive. I’m looking forward to meeting you and your dogs!

 * In Defence of Dogs, by John Bradshaw is a fantastic exploration of the science behind understanding canine communication. In particular, the chapter: ‘Does your dog love you?’ 

Images on this page: Baba Langmann (CC BY-SA 3.0)